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Air Defense Systems



Surface-to-Air Missiles (SAMs)

  • (Status Unkown) 36 MIM-23 HAWK XXI launchers (108 missiles): Is a ground-based, mobile, medium-range air defense system against low and medium altitude airborne threats such as aircraft and missiles. Hawk XXI missile system consists of AN/MPQ-64F1 acquisition and tracking radar, AN/MPQ-61 high power illuminator radars, the command post, Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) systems, and up to six launchers with three missiles each. It can be configured as 6 Baterries (with 6 Launchers each) or 12 Fire units (with 3 launcher each). CWARs and HPIRs, PCPs, Containers, 36 M192E1 Launchers, 36 MTM-23 training missiles, 162 MIM-23P missiles were purchased, wich have a minimum engagement range of 1.5 kilometres, a maximum range of 45 km, a minimum engagement altitude of 60 metres, a maximum engagement altitude of 20,000 m and a warhead of 75 kg HE blast/fragmentation. Other improved missiles are also available for purchase. The RMA aquired all related systems and the 162 MIM-23P missiles as Excess defence articles (EDA) in 2010. the AN/MPQ-64F1 Improved Sentinel is A X-Band 3D range-gated doppler radar system used with the Hawk XXI system. It replaces both the CWAR and PAR components of the Hawk system. MPQ-64F1 Sentinel provides coverage range of more than 75 km (47 mi), rotating at 30 rpm. The system has a mean time between failure of around 600 hours, and can track at least 60 targets at once. It can elevate up to +55º, depress to -10º and 360º azimuth. The radar automatically acquires, tracks, classifies, identifies and reports targets, including cruise missiles, unmanned aerial vehicles, rotary and fixed-wing aircraft, it also provide a 360° rocket artillery and mortar detection. The radar is designed with high resistance to electronic countermeasures (ECM). Mounted on a towed platform, it can be positioned remotely from the rest of the unit, operated autonomously and communicate with the Fire Distribution Center (FDC) via wideband fiber-optic link. It can also distribute its data over a SINCGARS radio network. 8 Raytheon AN/MPQ-64F1 Improved Sentinel air surveillance radars were purchased in 2011.
  • Type 390 (DK-9) SHORAD: Also known as AF902 FCS/35 mm AA Gun Air Defence System, it’s an anti-aircraft gun air defense system designed and manufactured by the Chinese Company Norinco (China North Industries Corp.). The AF902 FCS/35 mm AA Gun Air Defence System is a fully automatic all-weather air defence system. Its main combat mission is to effectively intercept and kill fixed and rotary-wing aircraft, subsonic cruise missiles, and precision-guided weapons below the altitude of 4,500 meters and within the slant range of 8,000 meters. It can also defeat lightly armoured vehicles, surface targets and concealed ground forces as well. Complemented with NORINCO SHORAD (SHOrt Range Air Defense) missile solutions, performance of AF902 FCS/35 mm AA Gun Air Defence System is even more satisfying. 100 Type-90 (PG99), wich are the Chinese licensed copy of GDF-002, were purchased. The PG99 is a towed anti-aircraft gun suitable for point and coastal air defence. It is deployed as part of the AF902 ADS near military bases, airfields, and along the coast to defend Sea Land of Communication (SLOC), ports, bridges and other important assets. The system is armed with two 35 mm auto cannons, improved sight, and the ability directed by an off-gun digital control system. In this extended configuration, each fire unit consists of one AF902 fire control system, from two to four 35 mm AA guns with ammunition, and two DK-9 missile launchers with eight missiles ready-to-fire. Both The DK-9 is a short range ground-to-air missile defense system designed by the Chinese Company Dong Bingyin at the Luoyang Electro Optical Center. The launch unit is the towed version and it’s used as a part of the Type 390 (DK-9) brigade (regiment)-level combined AAA/SAM air defence system. The purchassed number of SAM systems is unknown.



  • 72 MIM-72C/E Chaparral Launchers (288 missiles): MIM-72/M48 Chaparral is a RMA self-propelled surface-to-air missile system (SPSAM) based on the AIM-9 Sidewinder air-to-air missile system. The launcher is based on the M113 family of vehicles. the RMA received 37 vehicles and 504 missiles in 1976-1977. Whatever opinion other users have of Chaparral, the Moroccan army is a very enthusiastic user and even in 2012 considers this a premiere tactical SAM. 36 vehicles are in frontline army use. It is intended to be used along with the M163 Vulcan Air Defense System, the Vulcan covering short-range short-time engagements, and the Chaparral for longer range use. The MIM-72A system have a minimum engagement range of 500 metres, a maximum range of 9 km, a minimum engagement altitude of 25 metres, a maximum engagement altitude of 4,000 m and a MK48 Continuous-rod warhead of 12.2 kilograms (27 lb)In 2008 Morocco aquired as EDA 36 MIM-72E Chaparral systems from the USA. MIM-72E missiles have a M121 smokeless motor, improved AN/DAW-1 guidance section, M817 directional doppler fuze and a M250 blast-fragmentation warhead. These enhancements gave the missile an all-aspect capability, counter-ECM capability and an improved Rrange to 9000 m.
  • 12 Tunguska M1 Systems (72 Launchers/576 missiles): The 2K22 Tunguska is a Russian tracked self-propelled anti-aircraft weapon armed with a surface-to-air gun and missile system. It is designed to provide day and night protection for infantry and tank regiments against low-flying aircraft, helicopters, and cruise missiles in all weather conditions. Its NATO reporting name is SA-19 “Grison”.A complete system or battery consists of six 2S6 combat vehicles armed with the 9M311 “Treugol’nik” (triangle) surface-to-air missile and two 2A38 30 mm cannon. The system uses the 9M311 (NATO: SA-19/SA-N-11) missile family which can engage targets at a range of 2.4 to 8 km and to an altitude of 3.5 km with a warhead wich weighs about 9 kg, and is a continuous-rod system, consisting of 600 mm long 6 to 9 mm diameter rods with a flower-like cross section. It also uses a dual 2A38 30 mm cannons (1,904 rounds carried). The cannons are fired alternatively with a combined rate of fire of between 3,900 and 5,000 rounds per minute (1,950 to 2,500 rpm for each gun), and have a muzzle velocity of 960 m/s.Bursts of between 83 and 250 rounds are fired as determined by the target type, with an engagement range between 0.2 and 4.0 km and to an altitude of 4 km. HE-T and HE-I shells are used and fitted with a A-670 time and impact fuze which includes an arming delay and self destruct mechanism.
  • ~90 ZSU-23-4 (Shilka) is a lightly armored, self-propelled, radar guided anti-aircraft weapon system (SPAAG), it weighs 19 tonnes, has a displacement range of 450 km (280 mi) and a top speed of 50 km/h (31 mph). Armed with four 23 mm autocannons, equipped with an NBC system with an air filtration unit, fire-fighting equipment, TNA-2 navigational system, infrared vision device, R-123 radio set, R-124 intercom and electric power supply system consisting of a DGChM-1 single-shaft gas turbine engine (70 hp at 6,000 rpm) and a direct-current generator (which provides 27 V and 54 V direct current or 220 V 400 Hz alternating current).
    The ZSU-23-4 could be used against enemy helicopters and also light armoured vehicles, infantry and firing points as an infantry-support vehicle. With its high rate of accurate fire, the ZSU-23-4 can even neutralize tanks by destroying their gun sights, radio antennas, or other vulnerable parts.
  • ~115 M163 Vulcan Air Defense System (VADS) is a self-propelled anti-aircraft gun (SPAAG). The M163s uses a small, range-only radar, the AN/VPS-2, and an M61 optical lead-calculating sight. The system is suitable for night operations with the use of AN/PVS series night vision sights that can be mounted to the right side of the primary sight. The gun fires at 3,000 rounds per minute in short bursts of 10, 30, 60, or 100 rounds, or it can fire in continuous fire mode at a rate of 1,000 rounds per minute. A linkless feed system is used.As the ZSU-23-4, the M163 VADS has a rol against enemy helicopters but is commonly used against LAVs and infantry as an infantry-support vehicle.



  • 100 Type 90, Chinese version of the Swiss Oerlikon 35 mm twin cannon. These are replacing the ZPU AAG and some used as part of the DK-9 SHORAD System.
  • ~90 ZU-23-2, a Soviet towed 23 mm anti-aircraft twin-barreled autocannon. The autocannon can be prepared for firing from the march position in 30 seconds and in emergency can be fired from the traveling position. The weapon is aimed and fired manually, with the help of the ZAP-23 optical-mechanical sight which uses manually entered target data to provide limited automatic aiming. It also has a straight-tube telescope T-3 for use against ground targets such as infantry as well as unarmored or lightly armoured vehicles. The ammo is a feed by a conveyor belt from two ammunition boxes. Each of the ammunition boxes are located on the side of the twin autocannon and each carries 50 rounds. The fumes created by firing the weapon are partially removed through the side openings in the barrels.
  • ~150 ZPU, a Soviet towed anti-aircraft gun based on the Soviet 14.5 mm KPV heavy machine gun, with air-cooled quick-change barrels and can fire a variety of ammunition including API (B32), API (BS41), API-T (BZT) and I-T (ZP) projectiles. Each barrel has a maximum rate of fire of around 600 rounds per minute, though this is practically limited to about 150 rounds per minute. The quad-barrel ZPU-4 uses a four-wheel carriage similar to that once used by the obsolete 25 mm automatic anti-aircraft gun M1940. In firing position, the weapon is lowered onto firing jacks. It can be brought in and out of action in about 15 to 20 seconds, and can be fired with the wheels in the traveling position if needed.The double-barrel ZPU-2 was built in two different versions; the early model has large mud guards and two wheels that are removed in the firing position, and the late model has wheels that fold and are raised from the ground in the firing position.The single-barrel ZPU-1 is carried on a two-wheeled carriage and can be broken down into several 80-kilogram pieces for transport over rough ground. These are beeing replaced by Type 90 AAAs.
  • ~40 M167 Vulcan Air Defense System (VADS) is a towed short-range anti-aircraft gun designed to protect forward area combat elements and rear area critical assets. It is also used to protect airfields. The heart of the M167 is a variant of the M61 Vulcan 20 mm rapid-fire Gatling gun that fired explosive 20 mm bullets. It also protected against lightly armored ground targets. The M167A2 VADS was modified with an improved fire-control subsystem. The improvement was obtained by replacing the disturbed reticle sight with a director reticle sight, the sight current generator with a digital processor, and the azimuth drive assembly with a harmonic drive. It also had an extra wheel put on each side which lowered its center of gravity to prevent flipping.

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